The vineyards of Alsace represent less than 2% of the French vineyard surface area, i.e. 15,600 hectares of vines. There are three Appellations d'Origine Contrôlée in Alsace: Alsace, Alsace Grand Cru and Crémant d'Alsace. The terms "Vendanges tardives" or "Sélections de grains nobles" can be added to the AOC Alsace and Alsace Grand Cru in compliance with the rules established by INAO. There are approximately 4,900 winegrowers in Alsace among which there are 1,000 independent winegrowers, 1,900 wine cooperatives and 2,000 negociants. White wines represent more than 90% of wine production. The key grape varieties for white wines in Alsace include Riesling, Sylvaner, Gewurztraminer, Pinot Blanc, Pinot Gris and Muscat while red wines are produced mainly from Pinot Noir.